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Showing content with the highest reputation on 07/16/18 in all areas

  1. 6 points
    True. Don't rely on it because sometimes I'm a bit lazy and you'll catch me out, but they are very different. An organism has two basic types of defence mechanisms to increase its fitness when challenged with a threat; tolerance and resistance. Tolerance is defined as the ability to withstand the health impact caused by a given pathogen burden or toxin. Resistance is defined as the ability to limit the burden itself. The distinction is important, not just for being precise. Tolerance is a quality the host organism has that does not drive defensive retaliation from the pest, it does not drive evolutionary change, adaption, or resistance, and may even have a positive effect from the pest's point of view. On the other hand resistance, whether naturally conferred or human-assisted, will cause an escalating co-evolutionary war as natural selection acts on successive limits or ascendancy imposed on the fitness of each party
  2. 5 points
    Hmm. To post or not to post. I have this OP filed under ‘naïve’ rather than ‘ludicrous’ at the moment. A colony-level trait like hygienic behaviour (which is what varroa resistance seems to come down to these days) is an emergent property, a function of particular sets of genes, and their relationship with any number of diversely related patrilines (families) within three castes of bees. For hygienic workers, it’s highly probable that, if we accept that something like a freeze-dried assay is useful, only a few of a large number of patrilines will exhibit the trait and so only some selected queen larvae (or drones) will carry it and the others will not. It ain’t necessarily so that drones (with half the chromosomes) would pass on the trait at all. A virgin queen will inherit a single contribution from one of the many drones that mated with her mother. I know drones are in the frame because they are supposed to display recessive traits, but it’s not at all clear to me how Mendelian ideas about recessive or dominant genes has any relevance to polygenic traits, as we know varroa resistance must be. We can’t even be sure what contributes to this resistance. How many of you remember the days of suppressed reproduction; can it only be ‘hygiene’. Bees that have never faced this parasite before may be coping by using an existing behaviour, but is that how truly resistant bees do it? The Honey Bee Genome Project (2008) identified 15-20 different genes out of a possible 30 or so that could be linked to hygienic behaviour during a varroa infection, groups of genes that had an effect on the nervous system, response to stimuli, and olfaction. I don’t think it’s possible to say how these may be linked (or not) to other aspects of honey bee behaviour. If, as a commercial beekeeper, I had developed or maintained a line of bees with predictable qualities affecting, workability, fecundity, swarming, productivity, blah, blah, blah, hell would freeze over before I’d deliberately introduce a line of unknown drones. Adding water to whisky doesn’t always improve it. That’s why I think you need to a particularly well resourced outfit, and one with the technology to use things like Marker Assisted Selection, if the plan is to make the difference where 50 years of experience has failed.
  3. 4 points
    Mine were very buzzy over the weekend...
  4. 3 points
    I'v made this today while I was waithing dipper to reach temperature ? Just a simple box for everyday beekeeping (smoker, hive tool...) and one smaller box for grafting tools, cell cups, light... Also could be used as a grafting frame stand, small grafting station, indeed.
  5. 3 points
    I do too . Back in the days when we relied on our immune systems to be naturally kick started and boosted , which seemed to work well
  6. 2 points
    Some people like to network. Some people like to listen to the presenters. Others for the social. Bigger companies "shout' the worker bees to it. For some, it's a holiday and excuse to visit other areas of New Zealand. It's expensive I find. And busy. Suppliers show their wares and shout a round at the bar. I prefer the more local type of get together. I wonder about similar types of events- The Home Show, Field Days, Food Shows, and lately I heard a Womans Show. You pay to get in and then pay for the food and crap. The stall holders pay a good amount to be there and I ask "why do we have to pay for entry to see/buy their stuff?" Wouldn't the stall holders pay enough for the venue and organising of event through the fees that they pay? I reckon bee equipment suppliers will be fighting for all they can after this year's overall performance.
  7. 2 points
    managed to get a look in the hives on saturday, was quite surprised by the findings. On hive I thought was very quiet and i suspected no one was home anymore, was actually doing fine, even brood in it, which does surprise me... the hives just dont seem to want to shut up shop this year.... frosts on the ground and all! Second one I checked had even more brood so I didnt delve too deep into the other 3. They are all fairly clustered though and mostly quiet compared with when I tried to look in them two weeks ago and gave up after looking at the first one and they were all over me. Gave them all an oxalic dribble as i wont be able to get back to them until early sept and just want to tide them over a bit until i get treatments in then. One was a bit light on stores (and it was earlier as well) so i might give them some feed to tide them over, the others are still heavy with honey.... i left them heaps as I had far too much this year. They are all clustered in the middle 3/4 box and in the top honey box.... Im thinking they wont move far and I wonder if we are gonna have a real winter or not this year? Think I feel happy to leave them now and head to usa for a month, woopeeeeee
  8. 2 points
    Iron clad proof, no. Despite that the bee genome has been mapped, all the individual genes involved in resistance have not been fully studied and understood yet. However the deduction has been made and is generally accepted, that the genes involved in varroa resistance are either recessive, or have to act in the correct combination of several of them, because of the way varroa resistance is lost so quickly in succeeding generations if queens are open mated.
  9. 2 points
    Have just returned from a holiday which didn't involve email or phone ! We (myself and @TammyW ) are heading to conference. We're both speaking in the science sessions - I'll be speaking about our new tests for the varroa resistance markers and our results to date and Tammy is speaking about her Masters project on Lotmaria passim (as well as nosema) prevalence around the country. You'll spot us around - at least from behind - in this: so feel free to bail us up to talk about AFB testing with DNA methods, bee pathogens and varroa resistance
  10. 2 points
    It is different in taste, but rarely I get pure lime. It always come with blackberries, tree of heaven, honeydew - in various ratios. It is to me nice, I like it that mixed way. Pure lime is also nice honey. In fact if I have to choose between the rain or drought, I choose this rain. The world cup.. I don't feel such euphoria, while the country is pure mess..and most of us struggle to survive ( around 300 000 people runaway form country in 3 years and still go at same pace..). I am also teared should we stay or should we go.. I keep pushing myself to don't give up and try to stay even I got some ways to go abroad.. Don't want talk about grim things more, here are couple random pics from this year..
  11. 1 point
    The promiscuity of honey bee queens generates lots of interesting questions about social insect society, many of which relate to the many different ‘sub-families’ that co-exist within a colony. For example, do individuals within a colony overcome their self-interest to rear the ‘best’ replacement queen in an emergency or do they try to pick their closest relative? Just how far does social co-operation extend? Emerging recent research is starting to suggest that, apart from picking well-fed larvae of the optimum age, workers tend to select larvae from particular ‘royal’ sub-families. If that turns out to be true, we may well have some of our ideas about honey bee queens wrong. Most of our contemporary ideas about the ‘families’ in a honey bee colony stem from studying the genetics of individuals in the colony. The workers in the hive are all sisters, daughters of one queen ‘mother’, but they have many fathers, depending on which particular sperm fertilised the egg they hatched from. Usefully, the lengths of inherited genetic material we call genes contain non-functioning stretches of repetitive elements that we can look at easily. These are known as ‘microsatellite’ markers, and because they don’t code (for proteins) chance changes in these areas don’t affect protein coding and can accumulate, providing a record of change and relationship we can read. Typically researchers amplify the sections of DNA they are interested in using PCR, at the same time tagging the microsatellites with fluorescent markers. As the repeated sequences have different lengths and masses these can then be seen using (for example) chromatography. Researchers will choose a number of microsatellite markers that are relevant to whatever they are studying, say 3 – 8 different ones, and then group individuals that share common sets of markers. People looking at this sort of thing will collect lots of workers, analyse the microsatellite markers, and work out the number of different drones there must have been in order to produce the number of different families of worker they have. They have shown that, for a considerable period (many months), the composition of the families remains much the same, suggesting that drone semen is pretty well mixed after mating and used randomly. Over the long term however (up to 4 years) the make-up of the sub-families do change, possibly a consequence of the filling sequence and changing sperm density in the spermatheca, and maybe evidence of ‘cryptic female choice’ or sperm competition in honey bee queens. Lately, some studies have begun to include queens in the microsatellite analysis, and discovered sets of families that are unique to queens and do not appear if you just examine worker offspring. These ‘extra’ families suggest that queens actually mate with more drones that we thought, rather than 10 – 20 being a ‘normal’ number, 20 – 40 might be more accurate, and actually more in line with that reported for other honey bee species. These ‘royal’ sub-families appear to be quite rare, and stay that way, despite the apparent advantage natural selection would give them if they are more attractive to queen-rearing nurses. That’s likely to be because emergency queen rearing is a relatively rare event so workers seldom get a chance to exercise any preference, and because there are other factors that determine the result in any case. Nevertheless several studies suggest that, in the case of queens raised in an emergency, the choice of which larvae to pick is biased towards particular ‘royal’ subfamilies rather than towards the workers’ own subfamilies. Withrow JM, Tarpy DR (2018) Cryptic "royal" subfamilies in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0199124. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199124 Moritz RFA, Lattorff HMG, Neumann P, Kraus FB, Radloff SE, Hepburn HR. (2005) Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Naturwissenschaften. 2005; 92:488±91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-005-0025-6 PMID: 16151795 Brodschneider, R., Arnold, G., Hrassnigg, N., and Crailsheim, K. (2012) Does Patriline Composition Change over a Honey Bee Queen's Lifetime? Insects 2012, 3, 857-869; doi:10.3390/insects3030857 ISSN 2075-4450
  12. 1 point
    Unless things have changed since he was here in 2011 for the NBA Waipuna conference , you need to factor into Randy Oliver's talks - particularly regarding varroa, that he mainly produces and sells nucs, rather than produce honey so there are more opportunities for brood breaks, which of itself impacts the build up of varroa.
  13. 1 point
    I started going to conference about 8 years ago and the first 2 or 3 years it was all interesting as it was all new to me. And then you start getting a bit more observant/critical as to what is going on at conference. From Rotorua conferences everything got cranked up...a lot more attendees were there and ever since then it seemed like the beekeeping industry has started a different sort of movement....maybe it’s the big boys coming in. The Networking can be excellent and or course 95% of the stalls are trying to sell you some sort of product or service which is fine..you see some really cool stuff and get different slants on things as we all bee keep our own certain ways. Lots of governmental departments telling us what we should and shouldn’t do and giving us facts (that we have all contributed to). I like science and a bit or reality beekeeping. There should be more of it. I guess with all the different scales of beekeeping out there - I would like to see, say, the beeks who have 250 - 500 hives discuss their issues and how they deal with them. I guess we all have same issues but at different scales. IMO Randy Oliver would have to be one of the more interesting speakers...good for motivation. A conference is made or broken by the quality of the speakers and the topics. I am looking forward to being there this weekend.
  14. 1 point
    I dont think it would be unusual to breed Bees within a operation within a relatively remote location that are somewhat more Varroa tolerant than the national average After all, its been stated numerous times in discussions on this forum that its possible to improve ones own bees but very difficult to take that improvement and replicate across the country This is the basis for argument that Breeding program Queens are bound to give mixed results when sold out of their parent operations
  15. 1 point
    what are you going to breed first. resistant bees or resistant varroa.
  16. 1 point
    I for one would be keen on getting treatment free queens off you to trial if you had them for sale, but the fact that you are using strips indicates you are still a way off from that. I think what you are aiming for is a worthy goal.
  17. 1 point
    If the research was funded by apinz only and apinz beekeepers were the only ones that sent in samples then yes that would be fair.
  18. 1 point
    Common trap A hive that is totally isolated might survive but not because it is Varroa tolerant, much more likely because it is isolated. After you have had a few hindered hives for a while you see all sorts of natural variations ranging from very poor to outstanding. Trying to duplicate the outstanding is a fools pursuit A far more achievable goal is to keep healthy hives by intervention This may seem an unsustainable and short sighted approach but Im absolutely convinced that as Unsustainable and short sighted as it may be, it will certainly take you further for longer than chasing the Varroa tolerance rainbow. This is not to say that some level of Varroa tolerance cant be bred but we will probably be reliant on intervention for a long time to come
  19. 1 point
    I found them. I have to say I face palmed several times as it was infuriating reading. Be interesting to see if any progress has been made. I am more interested in the selection and breeding of varroa resistant bees than seeking to use small cell foundation as a silver bullet. I am, and will remain, too small a fry to make much of a difference myself. But if I treat all my bees the same, and some hives are weaker than others, then I know to requeen from my strongest hives. It seems clear that bees can be bred to be treatment free/or at least varroa tolerant, as there appear to be bees all over the world that are, bred by different methods. I don't watch much TV and tend to get involved in new things. Beekeeping a recent hobby. So I read widely and varied on the subject and then play. Which is why I was rearing queens 12 weeks after buying my first nuc 28/10/17 (which is now 6 hives, including a topbar). Initial readiings suggested small cell could be a thing, but my suspicions are that it is actually selection of VSH that is happening. I should put my money where my mouth is. Down in Wanaka, where I take a school camp every year, the owner of the horse trekking operation assures me there is a wild hive in a pine tree that has been there forever. Maybe I should try and steal some brood or the queen! Last year's thing was teaching myself to graft fruit trees. I now have a couple of trees with multiple varieties on them. I still want to have a go at woodturning one day too. Otherwise I get stuck doing school work 24/7.
  20. 1 point
    I imagine most beekeepers will have done their main harvest before the willow dew started to happen
  21. 1 point
    Yes, as above we hope that all the science talks will be recorded. A number of people have asked about the varroa resistance but in fairness to the conference session, we will present the results there first. It'll be up to @TammyW as to the results of her work being put up here
  22. 1 point
    @JohnF and @TammyW any chance of posting your results on the forum after conference for those that won’t be going.
  23. 1 point
    I love these guys at the moment, their lyrics are bizarro, this one is my particular fave
  24. 1 point
    Found this post on Beesource, written by user Grozzie2, a Canadian beekeeper. It is stuff that every beekeeper needs to have a good understanding of, and is a very well written piece. So with Grozzie's permision I have copied it here. Just be aware that their summer is our winter. So add 6 months on to any months or time he mentions. Also, their season and drone raising timetable can be a little different to ours, but the principles are the same. The original post is at http://www.beesource.com/forums/showthread.php?347723-Anatomy-of-a-mite-crash QUOTE - "Anatomy of a mite crashTo understand the anatomy of a mite crash (often mistaken for a late season abscond by inexperienced new beekeepers), it's important to first understand the biology of the honeybee, as well as the biology of the varroa mite, and more importantly, get an understanding of how the two life cycles interact.I have read extensively on the biology of both the honeybee, and the varroa mite. For this summary, I will forgo the tedious process of finding and quoting all of the references, but summarize what is now my understanding of how the two life cycles interact, along with some basic arithmetic to show the interaction. Over the years I have always equated the progression of a bee colony to the brood cycle of the bees, and just assumed the progression of the mite population would follow the same cycle since the mites are raised in the bee brood. This is a huge mistake.As beekeepers, we should all understand the life cycle of a honeybee during the summer season already. An egg is laid, it emerges as a larvae 3.5 days later. A worker is capped 6 days later (day 9) and emerges as an adult bee 11 days later (day 20). The drone is different, capped on day 10 to emerge on day 24, spending 3 more days under cappings than the worker. Most of us think of a 'brood cycle' in terms of 3 weeks because it is a timeframe that is easily remembered, easily transferred to a calendar, and closely approximates the progression from egg to adult bee of a worker bee, the vast majority of the population in a colony of honeybees.The varroa mite has a completely different life cycle. A fertile female varroa mite has an average lifespan of 27 days during the summer season. The female varroa mite will enter a cell shortly before it's capped to do her reproductive magic in that cell while it is capped. For a worker cell the capped phase is 11 days, and during that time the female will produce one male offspring and averages something like 1.5 female offspring. Since it's not possible to produce half an offspring, for this discussion we will assume the lower bound, and it's one viable offspring. The end result then becomes this. The female varroa goes into the cell, to emerge 11 days later along with one viable offspring. The average length of the phoretic phase is 4.5 days according to much reading on the subject, at which time we will have two viable mites entering cells to reproduce. Both of these mites will produce one viable offspring, but the original foundress mite will be reaching end of life, so at the conclusion of this mite brooding round we will have 3 viable mites in the colony as offspring derived from the original foundress mite. Accounting for 4.5 days of phoretic behaviour before these 3 enter cells, we are now 31 days from the start of the cycle, and have 3 viable mites in the hive. So the simplified way of looking at this, the mite population will triple in 31 days, about once a month, during a period when the mites are propogating in worker cells.Things change when drone brood is present. The drone brood is preferred by the mites because of the longer capped period. After 4 days of phoretic behaviour a foundress mite will enter a drone cell that will be capped for 14 days instead of 11. Literature suggests that the average success rate for offspring in drone brood is 2.5, so again, simplify the numbers and conservatively call this 2 viable daughters for a mite that propogates in a drone cell. After the capped period, we have 3 viable mites emerging, which spend 4.5 days phoretic then enter drone brood which is capped for 14 days. When the 14 days are up, we have 9 mites in those cells, one of which is the original foundress and dies from age, leaving 8 viable mites. This process took 36 days to grow from 1 to 8. An increase by a factor of 8 over 36 days equates to doubling the population of mites every 12 days, for easy comparison, lets call that 2 weeks.So, in a vastly simplified and somewhat conservative set of estimates, we can say the mite population will triple in a month where only worker brood is present, and it will double every two weeks when drone brood is present. Keep in mind, I have ignored the 'half' part of the averages, so this is an extremely conservative description of mite population growth thru the season.Now we look at a honeybee colony that has a stable population after building up. The queen is laying 1500 eggs a day, so there are 1500 bees emerging each day, and another 1500 dieing off. If you do the math on population size, there will be roughly 30,000 house bees, and an equal number of foragers, this is your proverbial 'booming' hive with about 60,000 bees in total, managing on the order of another 30,000 brood cells in various stages from egg to emerging bee. On July 15 we do a mite wash and count 1%. We washed house bees, and, will make another conservative assumption. Mites prefer house bees, so all the mites are on the house bees, foragers are clean. 1% on 30,000 bees is 300 mites (it would be 600 if we include foragers in our population estimate). Keep in mind, this is just the phoretic population, for every phoretic mite, there are 3 more under cappings, so, the actual mite population is 300 phoretic and 900 under cappings, for a total of 1200 mites. There is drone brood present till Aug 1, so for another 2 weeks. Two weeks later on Aug 1 the total mite population is 2400 mites, but we have reached the point where new drone brood is no longer present, so the population of mites will no longer double in two weeks, it triples in a month. This brings us up to 7200 mites on Sept 1, and left unchecked, that mite population will grow to 21,000 mites by Oct 1.Now lets look back at our bee population. On July 15 we had a booming hive with 60,000 bees, but the laying rate of the queen is already starting to reduce and by mid September she is only laying 500 or so eggs a day. The bee population still looks huge as we still have roughly 40,000 bees in the colony, but, the dieoff rate of foragers from age now far exceeds the rate of replacement bees being raised. By early October we are down to 30,000 bees total in the colony as they reduce population going into winter. But we have long reached a crossover point by now, 30,000 bees and 20,000 mites, the infestation rate is more than 50%. We have the queen laying 500 eggs a day, so only 500 worker cells available for mites to go into, and we have a few thousand mites looking for a cell to enter. Every cell ready for capping has a mite, many of them more than one mite.The net result of all this, is very predictable. Timeframes vary by climate, but you can basically set your clock based on when the bees stop raising drones in your area. At this time, the queen rate of laying eggs is reducing, and the mite population triples over the next month, while the bee population decreases and the brood rate cuts in half. By the end of the second bee brood cycle without drone brood present, the mite population is large enough to infest every worker cell that is developing. This results in the perfect storm of bee deaths. We have a generation of foragers dieing off due to natural aging. At the same time, we have a generation of house bees that should be graduating to the forager role, but, many of them were compromised by mites during development, so they are not really healthy and many dieing off prematurely due to various mite related virus issues. At this same time, we have a generation of new bees emerging, all of whom are totally compromised and much of this population is to sick to be of use in the colony. The population is now dwindling so quickly that there aren't enough bees to incubate what brood is left in the hive, so the next generation (which should be your long lived winter bees) are dieing in the cells, chilled. The timing of this rapid decline will correspond with the 3rd brood cycle after they stop raising drone brood in the average case.A 1% infestation based on a wash or sugar roll in mid July left unchecked, is a dead hive in October or November, they just dont know it yet. Ofc, these numbers are based on averages, so, there will be outliers in both directions. Yes, there will be colonies that survive unchecked with this level of mites, and yes, there will be other colonies that dont make it this far into the cycle. But the averages suggest, you can set your clock starting at the time your bees stop raising drones. Count ahead 2 brood cycles, and the colony will look strong, lots of bees coming and going, nothing to worry about. But that's exactly the time the perfect storm of bee deaths due to mite infestation starts to accelerate and manifest itself in the form of a hive that crashes from 'looks strong, going to be a good cluster for the winter' into 'no bees left' just two or three weeks later. An autopsy of the colony will show virtually no bees left, brood frames with a fair amount of spotty capped brood, now dead, probably a few with heads sticking out as they tried to emerge but didn't succeed. For those who have never seen it happen before, these symptoms must add up to 'they absconded' because it doesn't seem realistic for that many bees to die off so quickly. Reality is, they died, and that many bees did die off that quickly".
  25. 1 point
    That 3km notice is very common, heaps of us have had it. I wouldn't be losing any sleep, but do keep up with the vigilance when you're working the hives, particularly a bit later on when the weather warms up and more brood starts to appear.
  26. 1 point
    It's really easy & cheap to buy ox & glyc in small amounts and mix them .. Ox is not awful to handle or anything like that. Buy a pile of strips, make up your brew when needed. Oxalic from paint shops or bunnings etc, glycerine by the litre off TM.
  27. 1 point
    Here is a 170 Staple Hobby pack with the option to get us to supply premixed Ingredients as well. Tonight or tomorrow Ill list them in the market place. Its a 10L poly Pail with 170 strips and an optional tub of ingredients inside if required. Combined price, delivered to most Mainfrieght Hubs NZ wide is $145.00 including Gst This price is a trial for now, wont be going down though. About 85 cents per staple with ingredient including gst and freight
  28. 1 point
    No the only Gib tape I've used is three layers I want to compare the difference between them and the board. I prefer the board as I can make them in bulk and so far they preform well. The Gib tape takes me a lot more time to do as we did it by hand sewing 150ms at a time then cutting each strip. But I believe I need to try anything thing to see what works and what doesn't. Buying ready made strips and spending more time with the fire would be good.
  29. 1 point
    Little Buddha spam! Starting to get real smiles now, but still very serious! Me and Mum, mostly Mum are setting up for a market soon, Riley is supervising and like your typical foreman she’s asleep on the job. Mums been very productive making soaps and happy feet (slippers). I made a human though so I win.
  30. 1 point
    Yep #youcantbeatwellingtononagoodday
  31. 1 point
    Just don’t go to Auckland and you’ll be fine ? definitely a terrible representation of the North Island. Wellington is ok tho
  32. 1 point
    Gorgeous girl ! I bet you didn’t realise how much love you could hold in your heart until you had your beautiful wee girl she has changed your life
  33. 1 point
    6 weeks old now. Had her shots yesterday, she was so good, only cried a little and was fine 2 minutes later. Growing everyday. Ive been letting her have her little hands out a bit lately, she’s still getting the hang of them, she has been using them to pull her hair, she scratched her face too which she wasn’t impressed by, she needs to be supervised with them until she gets the hang of it. Took her to see Chris’s Mum last Sunday and she still had some of Chris’s gowns from when he was a baby so I perked those and she’s been wearing them, so cute! Not the most practical things in the world compared to the gowns of today but they are 30 years old. Everyones probably noticed she always has a dummy in her mouth now, this is because she’s a hungry little hippo and she likes to eat until she explodes, she’s taken to spewing on me on the regular so now I give it to her to keep her busy and give her little tummy some time to settle and it keeps her happy and I don’t get sicked on as much. Its been quite cold so Mum knitted her a sweet little underlay for her bassinet out of some wool she spun, I love it so much! Nice and snuggly for bub. Chris said to me the other day that I’ve pretty much turned our bedroom into an incubator now, we’ve got a little humidifier going in there along with the heater lots of noises and annoying blue lights ? but it keeps baby happy. Shes been sleeping so well, 5 and a half hours is about the record for a night sleep, but 3-4 hours is about the norm so she’s pretty good really.
  34. 1 point
    One local major Beekeeping organisation in the Waikato have had an outbreak of AFB and have been burning contaminated boxes for a couple months. Unfortunately they also stacked some on a pallet and wrapped them ready for destruction, but before they could another employee picked up the infected boxes, and mixed them with the other stock. Too often I hear the risk of spreading AFB is elevated by the hobbiest beekeeper, however I do question whether an organisation running 5,000, 10,000 or 30,000 hives can manage, minimise, and contain AFB. I think you would all agree that major operators are as much of a risk to the industry as a hobbiest is. Your thoughts.
  35. 1 point
    I got around to taking photos of the set of blocks John made Riley. They all fit perfectly inside the little beehive. @john berry Thank you. This is by FAR the coolest thing baby has, I absolutely love them! ? Everyone I have showed them to has also said they are amazing.
  36. 0 points
    Varriti, would a catchy name for these Bees Ive claimed Stapriti already
  37. 0 points
    I agree Even Nigerian widows deserve a decent pension.
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