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Slovak Silver Fir (Abies alba) honeydew honey

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https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27449-3

"Phytochemicals-mediated production of hydrogen peroxide is crucial for high antibacterial activity of honeydew honey

Marcela Bucekova, Monika Buriova, Ladislav Pekarik, Viktor Majtan & Juraj Majtan"

13 Jun, 2018

 

http://www.apimondia.com/congresses/2013/Apitherapy/Symposia/Slovak Honeydew Honey - Juraj Majtan.pdf

"Slovak honeydew honey – from basic science to clinical applications

Juraj Majtan
Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences Department of Microbiology, Slovak Medical University"

See the map on slide 10

"honeydew honey produced in Cergov mountains (Abies alba Mill) has pronounced antibacterial activity • it is more effective than manuka honey UMF 15+ • kills multidrug-resistant bacteria such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and wound pathogens including MRSA." (from slide 11)

 

http://www.honeytraveler.com/single-flower-honey/honeydew-or-forest-honeys/

"Silver fir honeydew honey (Abies alba)

Is considered as one of the best honeydew/ forest varieties in Europe particularly in central Europe where it is widespread. The aphids responsible for its production belong to the Cinara genus."

 

http://beefarm.sk/index.php/en-gb/fir-honeydew

"Honeydew does not come from the nectar like other types of honey. It is made from fresh sweet juice byproduct produced by aphids (Cinara Pectinatae) living in large colonies on the fir trees. Aphids consume sap and produce sweet secretions. The secretions are collected and then processed by bees. The final product is honey with exceptional properties."

"The production of honey of the highest quality is irregular and depends on many factors. Čergov Mountains consists of many older fir trees that are ideal for the development of Aphids. Very important role have weather conditions, which are in Čergov Mountains unstable in recent years. Due to this weather changes the byproduct of Aphids can be washed from the surface of Fir trees before it is collected by the bees. On rainy years there is very little or no production of honeydew."

 

http://influentialpoints.com/Gallery/Cinara_pectinatae_Green-striped_fir_aphid.htm

"Cinara pectinatae feeds on firs (Abies species), especially Abies alba (silver fir) but also Abies nephrolepis, numidica, pindrow, sutchuenensis (= Abies fargesii var. sutchuenensis) and veitchii. Oviparae and alate males are found in October. It is not recorded from any North American firs. Cinara pectinatae occurs throughout Europe eastward to Turkey."

"The population dynamics of Cinara pectinatae have been studied in both France and Germany because it is a copious honeydew-producer, important to forest bee-keepers in Central Europe. In a seven year study, Maquelin (1974)  found that the number of eggs laid in autumn was inversely related to peak numbers in summer. Bloc et al. (1984)  monitored populations in France over two years. They concluded that rainfall was an important factor affecting numbers. When rainfall was heavy during the development of the first virginoparae generations, it prevented Cinara pectinatae populations from reaching high levels. This in turn reduced honeydew production and a prevented a heavy 'fir honey' harvest by bees."

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